Chart of the Inhabited World
Woodbridge devised this world map to represent not topographic detail, but social, cultural, and political geography.
Chart of the Inhabited World
Statistical Map of North America
This is typical for its time: the title claims it as “statistical,” the data is simply listed on the map. Soon thereafter maps would begin to represent statistics through shading and other techniques.
Map Showing the Distribution of the Constitutional Population
Walker’s map of population density established the categories that would be used on all his subsequent population maps in blue ink, enabling viewers to compare classes of information.
Chart Exhibiting the Annual Mortality of New Orleans
Barton designed this longitudinal chart to study the relationship between yellow fever and other aspects of city life, including weather and seasonal changes.
Map of the “Colored Population” Compiled from the Ninth Census
This map illustrated the black population in absolute terms rather than as a proportion of the overall population, as the Coast Survey’s map of slavery in 1861 had done.
Map of the Distribution of Illiteracy Compiled from the Ninth Census
Walker applied the new thematic mapping techniques from Europe to every aspect of American life that he could quantify, including disease, wealth, literacy, and ethnicity.
Four Small Maps of Ethnicity, Compiled from the Ninth Census
Walker paid close attention to mapping ethnic groups within the U.S., and these efforts became even more sophisticated in the Statistical Atlas of 1874.
Irish Population. Compiled from the Ninth Census
Here Walker mapped ethnic groups in density per square mile; later he would improve on this technique by adding the density of the overall population in order to facilitate comparison.
Map of the “Foreign Population” Compiled from the Ninth Census
This was one of Walker’s first attempts to map census data, and contemporaries noticed the stark comparison between it and the map of the “colored population” from the same report.
German Population. Compiled from Ninth Census
Francis Amasa Walker’s census maps of ethnicity were tailored to each group, and starkly illustrated their patterns of settlement in different parts of the country.
Pictorial View of the World
This broadside also attempted to capture a wide range of information, including world topography, and graphs that charted world chronology and the lives of distinguished men.
Five Manuscript Maps of Virginia
These maps date from the 1870s, and indicate Hotchkiss’ interest in thematic mapping to promote Virginia after the Civil War.
Maps of the Pacific Coast Exhibiting Various Subjects
By using the same base map to identify several different ethnic groups, Walker enabled the viewer to draw connections about patterns of migration and settlement.
Map of the Shifting Center of National Population, 1790-1870
Julius Hilgard innovated the technique of identifying the “center” of population at each decennial census, which had a profound effect on Frederick Jackson Turner’s concept of the frontier.
Map of Bison Distribution Over Time
This map depicts the shrinking bison population, highlighting the effects of expansion at the nation’s centennial. It became the model for William Temple Hornaday’s well-known map of 1887.
Map of Slavery in the U.S., Based on the Census of 1850
A European was the first to map American census data. The map at lower left shades the density of the slave population, and identifies the number of slaves per square mile.
Map of Population Density Compiled from the Ninth Census
Here designed this early map of the 1870 census convince Congress to fund an atlas of the census. Walker’s decision to map density reflected his concern with the growth of urbanization.
Map of Population in Virginia
Notice that Hotchkiss—a well-respected cartographer for the Confederacy—incorporated Hilgard’s “center of population” map in order to promote the centrality of Virginia after the Civil War.
Map of Black Population in Virginia
Hotchkiss separated out the black population in this map of Virginia, and made notations regarding improvements. His data was taken from Walker’s Statistical Atlas.