Freedom and Slavery, and the Coveted Territories
Anti-slavery activist John Jay used this map to alert northerners to the threat of slavery in the west, and to promote the cause of the newly-founded Republican Party in the 1856 presidential election.
Freedom and Slavery, and the Coveted Territories
Map of the United States, Showing by Colors the Area of Freedom and Slavery
One of many maps created for the 1856 election. The dark lines across the interior represent the expeditions of John Fremont, Republican candidate for president.
Map Showing the Distribution of Woodland
Francis Walker took care to include the latest maps of the physical landscape in his Statistical Atlas, in order to set the stage for the comprehensive population maps that would follow.
Map Showing the Distribution of Wealth
Walker integrated population density with this map of wealth to enable viewers to see possible relationships between the two.
Map of the “Colored Population” Compiled from the Ninth Census
This map illustrated the black population in absolute terms rather than as a proportion of the overall population, as the Coast Survey’s map of slavery in 1861 had done.
Map of the Distribution of Illiteracy Compiled from the Ninth Census
Walker applied the new thematic mapping techniques from Europe to every aspect of American life that he could quantify, including disease, wealth, literacy, and ethnicity.
Irish Population. Compiled from the Ninth Census
Here Walker mapped ethnic groups in density per square mile; later he would improve on this technique by adding the density of the overall population in order to facilitate comparison.
Map of the “Foreign Population” Compiled from the Ninth Census
This was one of Walker’s first attempts to map census data, and contemporaries noticed the stark comparison between it and the map of the “colored population” from the same report.
Map of the Distribution of Wealth Compiled from the Ninth Census
By mapping the distribution of wealth, disease, literacy, and other characteristics, Walker gave Americans entirely new ways to think about their nation.
Map of the Distribution of Deaths from Consumption Compiled from the Ninth Census
This was one of Walker’s first attempts to map disease data, by measuring deaths from consumption against deaths in the total population.
German Population. Compiled from Ninth Census
Francis Amasa Walker’s census maps of ethnicity were tailored to each group, and starkly illustrated their patterns of settlement in different parts of the country.
Map of the Shifting Center of National Population, 1790-1870
Julius Hilgard innovated the technique of identifying the “center” of population at each decennial census, which had a profound effect on Frederick Jackson Turner’s concept of the frontier.
Map of Virginia and its Slave Population (June 1861)
The Coast Survey executed this map just as Virginians were debating secession in order to highlight the different interests around slavery in the state.
Map of Virginia and its Slave Population (August 1861)
The Coast Survey’s second map of Virginia was modified to reflect to growing division in that state during the secession crisis. Note the identification of “Kanawha.”
Map of Virginia and its Slave Population (September 1861)
The final edition of the Virginia slave map used Census data to pointedly illustrate the relative absence of slaves from the western half of the state.
United States. Area: Acquisition and Transfer of Territory 1780 to 1870
The abbreviations on this map refer to Francis Walker’s comprehensive narrative, which detailed the territorial growth of the nation, from the colonial era down to his own day.
Map Showing the Illiteracy of the Aggregate Population
Here Walker used a map to compare the distribution of two classes of information (rates of illiteracy and population density), introducing what is now a common analytical use for maps.
Map of Slavery in the U.S., Based on the Census of 1850
A European was the first to map American census data. The map at lower left shades the density of the slave population, and identifies the number of slaves per square mile.
Map of Population Density Compiled from the Ninth Census
Here designed this early map of the 1870 census convince Congress to fund an atlas of the census. Walker’s decision to map density reflected his concern with the growth of urbanization.
Map of Population in Virginia
Notice that Hotchkiss—a well-respected cartographer for the Confederacy—incorporated Hilgard’s “center of population” map in order to promote the centrality of Virginia after the Civil War.
Map of Black Population in Virginia
Hotchkiss separated out the black population in this map of Virginia, and made notations regarding improvements. His data was taken from Walker’s Statistical Atlas.
Title page from Statistical Atlas of the United States
Walker’s Statistical Atlas, with maps executed by Julius Bien, was one of the first of its kind, and continues to command attention for its path-breaking use of maps and graphic illustration.